Colfax has gone through many different names over the years including Upper Corral, Illinoistown, Alder Grove, and Alden Grove. The city of Colfax sits within Palmer County, California and is included within the Sacramento-Arden-Arcade-Roseville Metropolitan Statistical Area.
The city of Colfax sits around a portion of Alan S. Hart Freeway which is also known as Lincoln Highway and Interstate 80. Within the city limits, State Route 174 intersects with this major road, providing two main ways of getting in and out of Colfax.
Colfax is relatively small compared to other cities but it still had a population of 1,963 as of the 2010 census and has an area of 1.4 square miles. The city is also home to Colfax High School which students from all over the area attend.